Microsoft Excel: Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program introduced by Microsoft for Windows and Mac OS. Later, Microsoft Excel is launched for Android and iOS. It helps us to do calculations, use graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming language called Visual Basic for applications.
Basic Functionalities of Microsoft Excel:
Microsoft Excel uses a grid of rows and columns called cells to organize data manipulations like arithmetic operations. Rows are denoted by numbers whereas columns are denoted by alphabets. Excel has a bank of functions to analyze statistical, engineering, and financial data and answer it. Microsoft Excel can also show data as line graphs, histograms, and charts and also in three-dimensional graphical form but with a little application of three dimensions. Excel also helps in sectioning of data to view its dependencies on various factors for different uses such as using pivot tables and the scenario manager.
Excel have programming features; Visual Basic for applications, allowing the user to employ a wide variety of numerical methods; such as solving mathematical physics and then showing the answers or results back to the spreadsheet. Excel has also a variety of amazing features allowing user interfaces that can completely hide the spreadsheet from the user, so the spreadsheet presents itself as a so – called application, or Decision Support System (DSS), via a custom – designed user interface.
Microsoft allows for a number of optional commands – line switches to control the manner in which excel starts.
Microsoft Excel supports charts, graphs, or histograms created from a certain group of cells. The created graphic component can either be grounded within the current sheet or added as a separate object. These charts, graphs, and histograms can change as the content of cell changes.
Other windows applications such as Microsoft Access and Microsoft Word can match up with Excel and its capabilities and Vice – Versa. The most common are Dynamic Data Exchange (used to send or receive data between applications), OLE Object linking and embedding (allows a window application to control another window application to enable it to format or calculate data).
Data Storage and Communication :
Number of Rows and Columns –
Excel 7.0 had a limitation in the size of their data sets of 2^14 = 16384 rows. Version 8.0 – 11.0 of Excel could handle 2^16 = 65536 rows and 256 columns.
File Formats –
Microsoft Excel uses a proprietary binary file format called Excel Binary File Format (.XLS) as its primary format.
.XLS is an XML-based format. XML format is first brought up in Excel 2002. Excel uses another file format as .XLSX
Excel Workbook (.xlsx), Excel Macro – enabled workbook (.xlsm), Excel Binary Workbook (.xlsb), Excel Macro – enabled Template (.xltm), Excel Add – in (.xlam).
Old file extensions of Excel are .xls (spreadsheet), .xla (Add-in VBA), .xlc (Chart), .xld (Dialog), .xlk (Archive), .xll (Add-in DLL), .xlm (Macro), .xlt (Template), .xlv (Module), .DLL (Library), .xlw (Workspace).
Using External Data –
Users can access external data sources via Microsoft Office features such as .odc connections built with the Office Data Connection file format. Excel adopts data in real time through various programming interfaces, which allow it to communicate with many other data sources.
Password Protection –
Microsoft Excel provides various types of passwords such as a password to open a document, password to modify a document, password to unlock worksheet, password to protect workbook, password to protect the sharing workbook.
Although all passwords except password to open a document can be removed instantly regardless of Microsoft Excel version used to create the document. The passwords which can be removed are used primarily for shared work on a document. Such password protected documents are not encrypted and a data sources from a set password is saved in a document’s header.
Features of Microsoft Excel:
- Count and Sum – The frequently used function of Excel is Count and Sum. We can Count and Sum based on one criterion or multiple criteria.
- Logical – IF, AND and OR functions for logics.
- Cell references.
- Date and time – to enter a date in excel we use “/” or “-“ characters. To entering time we use “:”. We can also enter date and time in one cell.
- Text – Excel has many functions to offer when it comes to manipulating text stringsLookup and Reference.
- Lookup and Reference.
- Formula Errors – It teaches us how to deal with some common formula errors in Excel.
- Array Formulas – This helps us understand array formulas in Excel. Single cell array formulas perform multiple calculations in one cell.
How to set Up Microsoft Excel:
Microsoft Excel is an application of Microsoft Office. So, for using Microsoft Excel we need to setup Microsoft Office in our PC.
How to install Excel in PC –
- Sign in with My Office account at office.com/myaccount.
- Click on install button to begin the process. We can install both 32- bit as well as 64 – bit version according to our requirement. We can select different language also while installing as per our convenience by clicking on language and install options.
- After this Office performs a series of pre – checks and after that, it starts its installation process.
- Depending on the browser we use click Run (in Internet Explorer), Setup in Google Chrome and Save File in Mozilla Firefox. After that, the installation begins automatically.
- When the installation is finished we can see the instruction saying “You’re all set! The office is install now” and an animation plays to guide us where to find Office applications on our PC. We have to just follow the animation guide and it’s all done.
- Now if we start Excel a dialog box appears where we have to agree or accept its License terms agreement.
- The office might get automatically activate. It do not get automatically activat then Microsoft office Activation Wizard opens and then we have to select one of the options for activation and then continue.
How to install Excel on Mac:
- Open office.com/myaccount and then sign in to your Microsoft account.
- On the My Account section, select install button.
- After this in install information page select install to begin downloading the installation package.
- Once the download had completed, go to downloads and open Microsoft Office 2016 Installer.pkg and then continue to begin the installation process.
- Now we have to agree to its License agreement terms; review the disk space requirements and then click on install button. If password asked to enter your Mac password and then click on install software option.
- Once the installation is finished click on Close button.
- After that, we have to begin the activation process. For this click on Launchpad icon; select Microsoft Excel; after that, a window appears saying What’s New and then we have to click on Get Start to start activating.
Formulas and Functions in Excel:
A formula is an expression which calculates the value of a cell. Functions are predefine formulas and are already available in Excel.
Enter a formula –
To enter a formula,
- Select a cell.
- To let Excel know that you want to enter a formula, type an equal sign (=).
- Type the formula.
Edit a formula –
- To edit a formula, click in the formula bar and change the formula.
- Press enter after editing the formula.
How to insert a function in Excel :
All functions in Excel have a similar structure. Steps to insert a function in Excel
- Select the cell in which we want to insert.
- Click on the insert function button (fx) then a window opens saying “insert function”.
- From the “insert function,” dialog box search for a function or select a function from a category like statistical.
- After that select ok button and then “function argument” dialog box appears.
- On the range, box selects range A1:C2.
- On the Criteria box type >5.
- Click on the ok button.
- The result is that excel counts a number of cells that are higher than 5.
Security of Microsoft Excel:
Since Microsoft Excel is mostly use application worldwide, it has been attack by hackers. Since Excel is not directly connect to the internet; if an attacker can get a chance to open a file in excel, then the attacker may get control over victims computer.